Weather History: Ten Year Anniversary of NYC’s Strongest Tornado

Ten years ago today, an EF2 tornado roared through New York City. It was the strongest twister on record to hit the Big Apple.

NYC Tornado of 2007. Credit: NYT

With winds measured up to 135 mph, it left a trail of destruction nine miles long from Staten Island to Brooklyn with the hardest hit neighborhoods being Bay Ridge and Sunset Park. The storm toppled trees and knocked out power to more than 4,000 customers. It damaged hundreds of cars and dozens of homes, including five that had their roofs ripped off. The storm also dumped 1.91 inches of rain in just one hour, which caused flash floods and the temporary suspension of subway service during the morning commute.

Historically, tornadoes have been rare events in NYC. In recent years, however, they have been happening more frequently. Of the eleven twisters that have touched down in the city since 1950, seven have occurred since 2003.

Note: Tornado ratings moved from the Fujita Scale (F) to the Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF) in 2007.

Tropical Storm Emily Soaks Florida’s Gulf Coast

Tropical Storm Emily, the fifth named storm of the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season, made landfall at Anna Maria Island in Tampa Bay, FL on Monday morning. It slammed the Sunshine state’s west coast with heavy rain and winds measured up to 45 mph.

According to the NWS, Valrico, FL, a few miles east of Tampa, saw 8.19 inches of rain. Widespread flooding was reported across the region and Gov. Rick Scott declared a state of emergency for 31 counties.

Most land-falling tropical storms come with a few days warning, as they develop over the ocean before moving toward populated areas. Emily, however, sprung up very quickly. It formed as the result of an out-of season cold front stalling out over the extremely warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico near Florida’s west coast.

Moving across the Florida peninsula, away from the warm waters that fueled it, the storm weakened quickly and was downgraded to a tropical depression. It is forecast to travel northeast out into the Atlantic Ocean. No major impacts are expected along the Eastern Seaboard, but rip currents will be an issue for beachgoers over the next few days from Florida to the Carolinas.

TS Emily moves over central Florida. Credit: NOAA/NASA GOES

Tropical Storm Cindy Batters Gulf Coast

Tropical Storm Cindy, the third named storm of the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season, made landfall between Cameron, LA and Port Arthur, TX early Thursday morning. It battered the area with heavy rain and winds measured up to 40 mph.

With rainbands spreading out across the Gulf Coast, flash floods were reported from New Orleans, LA to Pensacola, FL. The storm also downed trees and knocked out power to more than 32,000 customers across six states.

Moving inland, the storm was soon downgraded to a tropical depression. However, it still spawned a destructive tornado in Fairfield, AL. The NWS has given the twister a preliminary rating of EF-2.

The remnants of Cindy are expected to travel northeast over the next several days, unleashing even more torrential rain as it moves along.

Tropical Storm Cindy in the Gulf of Mexico. Credit: NOAA/NWS

Powerful Thunderstorm Lashes NYC

A violent thunderstorm lashed the New York City area on Monday afternoon. Strong winds and heavy rain were seen across the region.

After days of hot and humid conditions, a cold front moved in from the west and triggered these powerful storms. According to the NWS, 1.35 inches of rain was measured in Central Park and wind gusts reached 34 mph. Flash floods and downed trees were reported in Manhattan and the Bronx.

Below is a short video of the soaking rain seen near Madison Square Park in Manhattan.

Severe Thunderstorms: Watches vs Warnings

A severe thunderstorm is forecast for the New York City area on Monday afternoon. In addition to lightning, it could bring strong winds, heavy rain, hail, and the possibility of a tornado. Simply put, this is the type of weather that can cause property damage and loss of life. Therefore, it is important to understand the difference between the various alerts issued by the National Weather Service. They include advisories, watches, and warnings.  All should be taken seriously.

  • Advisory: Issued when significant, but not necessarily hazardous, weather conditions are likely to occur. Residents should exercise caution.
  • Watch: Issued when dangerous weather conditions are possible over the next several hours.  They generally cover a large geographic area.  Residents should be prepared to take action.
  • Warning: Issued when dangerous weather is imminent or already occurring.  They cover a smaller, more specific geographic area.  Residents should take action immediately.

Names for the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season

Today is the first day of the Atlantic Hurricane Season. Although one named storm – TS Arlene – already formed this year, the season officially runs from June 1st to November 30.

Since 1950, each tropical storm or hurricane to form in the Atlantic has had a unique name. They come from a set of six rotating lists produced by the World Meteorological Organization. A name is retired only when a storm was particularly noteworthy – causing a large number of fatalities or an extraordinary amount of damage. Some retired Atlantic Basin names include Andrew, Katrina, and Sandy.

The names for this year’s storms are listed below.

2017 Atlantic Storm Names

ArleneHarveyOphelia
BretIrmaPhilippe
CindyJoseRina
DonKatiaSean
EmilyLeeTammy
FranklinMariaVince
GertNateWhitney

2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season Outlook: Above Average

The number of hurricanes that develop in the Atlantic varies from year to year. For 2017, NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center is forecasting an above average season.

Tropical cyclones, known as hurricanes in the United States, develop around the globe at different times of the year. In this country, we are most impacted by the Atlantic hurricane season, which affects the North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. It runs from June 1 through November 30.

Overall, NOAA predicts a 70% likelihood of eleven to seventeen named storms forming this season, of which five to nine could become hurricanes, including two to four major hurricanes. A major hurricane is one that is rated category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson scale.

The numbers for this season’s outlook include Tropical Storm Arlene, a rare pre-season storm that developed in April.

According to NOAA, “The outlook reflects our expectation of a weak or non-existent El Niño, near or above-average sea surface temperatures across the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, and average or weaker-than-average vertical wind shear in that same region.” El Niño conditions in the Pacific tend to cause increased wind shear in the Atlantic, which suppresses tropical development.

Regardless of the number of storms that actually form, it is important to remember that it only takes one land-falling system in your community to make it a memorable season.

Source: NOAA

Unseasonable Nor’easter Soaks NYC

An unseasonable nor’easter soaked the northeastern US this Mother’s Day weekend. Heavy rain and gusty winds were reported across the region.

Here in New York City, 1.61 inches of rain fell in Central Park. This impressive total was only a few one-hundredths on an inch shy of the daily record of 1.66 inches that was set in 1971.

This storm also marked the second consecutive wet weekend for the Big Apple. Last Friday, a record-shattering 3.02 inches of rain came down in just a few hours. Between these two storms, the city has already received more precipitation than it typically sees for the entire month of May.

With an area of low pressure intensifying as it traveled north along the Atlantic coast, this storm was a textbook nor’easter. While this type of storm is more common during the fall and winter months, they can develop any time of the year.

Satellite view of the unseasonable May nor’easter. Credit: NOAA

The Different Ways a Nor’easter Can Develop

In the northeastern United States, nor’easters are well known for producing heavy precipitation, strong winds, and coastal flooding. Despite approaching the region from the south, they take their name from the steady northeasterly winds that blow in off the ocean.

Nor’easters can occur any time of the year but are most common between November and March. This is because the cold air that dips south in a jet stream trough during fall and winter often meets warmer air moving north over the Gulf Stream, which is just off the east coast. This contrast in temperature strengthens the storms. That said, there are a few different ways in which they can develop.

The first is called a “Miller Type-A” storm and is considered the “classic” nor’easter. These occur when an area of low pressure develops along the Gulf Coast or Atlantic Coast and intensifies as it tracks northward along the eastern seaboard.

The second type originates in the mid-west and is known as a “Miller Type-B” storm. Traveling east, these low-pressure systems weaken when they run into the Appalachian Mountains and transfer their energy to the coast. Often called a “center jump”, this transfer strengthens or creates a secondary low on the lee side of the mountains, which then moves northward. These types of storms are notoriously difficult to forecast as everything depends on the timing and location of the energy transfer between the two lows.

Both Miller “types” are named after James E. Miller, an atmospheric scientist who studied storm formation in the Atlantic coastal region during the mid 20th century.

Typical Miller Type A and B storm tracks. Credit: NOAA

The Active Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2016 Comes to a Close

The 2016 Atlantic Hurricane Season officially ends today.  Not only was it above average, as predicted, it was the basin’s most active season since 2012.

According to NOAA, there were fifteen named storms this season. Of these, seven developed into hurricanes and three – Gaston, Nicole, and Matthew – were major hurricanes with ratings of category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. An average season produces twelve named storms, six hurricanes, and three major hurricanes.

This season’s Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), which measures the intensity and duration of storms, was also above normal. On average, a season will post an ACE of 104 in the Atlantic. This year, according to hurricane researchers at Colorado State University, it was 134.

Officially running from June 1 to November 30, the 2016 season got off to an unusually early start. Hurricane Alex developed in January and made landfall in the Azores. It was the first Atlantic hurricane to occur in January since Hurricane Alice in 1955.

Of the season’s 15 named storms, five made landfall in the US –  Bonnie, Colin, Julia,  Hermine, and Matthew. Hermine was the first hurricane to make landfall in Florida in 11 years, ending the Sunshine State’s so called “hurricane drought”. The biggest headliner of the season, however, was Hurricane Matthew.

Matthew was the first storm to reach category-5 strength in the Atlantic in nine years. It weakened as it moved northward parallel to the US coast, but unleashed powerful winds and a damaging storm surge in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. The storm officially made landfall in South Carolina as a Category-1 hurricane, but its rain bands reached well inland and caused catastrophic river flooding in both North and South Carolina. In Fayetteville, NC – 100 miles from the coast – 14.82 inches of rain was reported.

This active hurricane season was largely the result of above average sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic and ENSO neutral to cool La Niña conditions in the Pacific. With warm water to fuel storms coupled with reduced wind shear across the Gulf of Mexico, tropical development in the Atlantic basin was essentially unhindered.

Despite this busy season, the US has luckily not been hit by a major hurricane since Wilma in 2005. With records dating back to 1851, it is the longest such stretch on NOAA’s books.

Source: NOAA

Source: NOAA