NYC Monthly Summary: November 2017

November 2017 felt like a temperature roller coaster in New York City. Highs ranged from an unseasonably balmy 74°F to a chilly 38°F. But with fourteen out of thirty days posting below average readings, including two record lows, the cold won out in the end. The city’s mean temperature for the month was 46.6°F, which 1.1°F below average.

In terms of precipitation, the month was mostly dry. Only 1.58 inches of rain was measured in Central Park, marking the fifth month in a row to deliver below average rainfall. The city usually gets 4.02 inches of rain in November.

Credit: The Weather Gamut

Extremely Active 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season Comes to a Close

The 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season officially ends today.  Not only was it above average, as predicted, it was the basin’s fifth most active season on record.

According to NOAA, there were seventeen named storms this season. Of these, ten developed into hurricanes and six were major hurricanes with ratings of category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. An average season produces twelve named storms, six hurricanes, and three major hurricanes. It is also interesting to note that this year’s ten hurricanes developed consecutively over the course of ten weeks, marking the largest number of hurricanes to form in a row in the satellite era.

This season’s Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE), which measures the intensity and duration of storms, was also exceptionally high. On average, a season will post an ACE of 104 in the Atlantic. This year, according to researchers at Colorado State University, it was 226 – the seventh highest in the historical record.

Officially running from June 1 to November 30, the season got off to an early start this year. Tropical Storm Arlene was a rare pre-season storm that developed in April. Another interesting outlier was Hurricane Ophelia in October. It was the easternmost major hurricane ever observed in the Atlantic Basin and the strongest storm on record to hit the Republic of Ireland. The biggest names of the season, however, were Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

In August, Harvey made landfall in Texas as category-4 hurricane. It was the first major hurricane to hit the United States since Wilma in 2005. It was also the wettest storm on record, dumping more than 50 inches of rain in southeastern Texas. This extreme precipitation caused catastrophic flooding in the Houston area.

Hurricane Irma maintained category-5 strength winds for 37 hours before making landfall as a category-4 storm in the Florida Keys. Measuring about 425 miles in diameter, Irma was wider than the Florida peninsula and its effects were felt across the entire Sunshine state in early September.

Just two weeks later, Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Rico. It was the third category-four hurricane to hit the US, or one of its territories, in less than a month. In 166 years of record keeping, that never happened before.

Causing so much destruction, Harvey, Irma, and Maria will likely be retired from the World Meteorological Organization’s list of storm names.

This active hurricane season was largely the result of above-average sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic and ENSO neutral to cool La Niña conditions in the Pacific. With warm water to fuel storms coupled with reduced wind shear across the Gulf of Mexico, tropical development in the Atlantic basin was essentially unhindered.

In terms of economic impact, ENKI Operations, a private research firm, estimates the property damage, clean up costs, and lost business productivity from this year’s storms to be $206 billion. That would make 2017 the costliest hurricane season on record for the US. The official tally from NOAA will not be available until early 2018.

Data: NOAA

October 2017: Earth’s Fourth Warmest on Record

Our global temperature continued its upward trend last month with October 2017 tying October 2003 as the fourth warmest October ever recorded on this planet. Only October 2014, 2015, and 2016 were warmer.

According to the State of the Climate Report by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, Earth’s combined average temperature for the month – over both land and sea surfaces – was 58.41°F. That is 1.31°F above the 20th-century average. October was also the 394th consecutive month with a global temperature above its long-term norm. That means the last time any month posted a below average reading was December 1984.

It is also interesting to note that the ten warmest Octobers on record have all occurred in the 21st century.

While heat dominated most of the planet last month, some places were particularly warm, including much of Europe, northern Russia, and the northeastern United States. For the contiguous US as a whole, the month ranked among the warmest third of the historical record.

These soaring temperatures are largely attributed to the long-term trend of human-caused climate change. In fact, a weak La Niña – the cool counterpart of El Niño – developed in the tropical Pacific during October.

Year to date, the first ten months of 2017 were the third warmest such period of any year on record. With only two months left, 2017 is expected to end up among the top three warmest years ever recorded on this planet. Global temperature records date back to 1880.

October 2017 was the planet’s 4th warmest October on record. Credit: NOAA 

October 2017: Warmest on Record in NYC

October 2017 was New York City’s warmest October on record. Its average temperature of 64.1°F was a staggering 7.2°F above the long-term norm. The previous record of 63.6°F was set in 1947 and tied in 2007.

Overall, twenty-six out thirty-one days were warmer than normal. Four of those produced readings in the 80s. Two record warm minimum temperatures were also set during the month. On October 8 and 9, the Big Apple only cooled down to 72°F and 71°F respectively. The average low for those dates is 52°F.

In terms of precipitation, the city was mostly dry. The weather station in Central Park reported 4.18 inches of rain, which is 0.22 inches below average. Of this total, 3.03 inches fell in a single day at the end of the month. This type of heavy rain event, according to NOAA, is expected to become more common in the northeast as the average global temperature increases and precipitation patterns change.

October 2017 was the warmest October on record in NYC. Credit: The Weather Gamut

September 2017: Earth’s Fourth Warmest on Record

Our global temperature continued its upward trend last month with September 2017 marking the fourth warmest September ever recorded on this planet. Only September 2014, 2015, and 2016 were warmer.

According to the State of the Climate Report by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, Earth’s combined average temperature for the month – over both land and sea surfaces – was 60.4°F. That is 1.4°F above the 20th-century average. September was also the 393rd consecutive month with a global temperature above its long-term norm. That means the last time any month posted a below average reading was December 1984.

While heat dominated most of the planet in September, some places were particularly warm, including much of Canada and parts of Asia. For the contiguous US, the month ranked among the warmest third of the historical record.

These soaring temperatures are largely attributed to the long-term trend of human-caused climate change. ENSO-neutral conditions prevailed in September, which means there was neither an El Niño nor a La Niña to influence global weather patterns.

Year to date, the first nine months of 2017 were the second warmest such period of any year on record. Global temperature records date back to 1880.

Credit: NOAA

NYC Monthly Summary: September 2017

September 2017 felt like a temperature roller coaster in New York City. Highs ranged from an unseasonably cool 66°F to a record warm 91°F. But with eighteen of the month’s thirty days posting above average readings, the heat won out in the end. The city’s mean temperature for September was 70.5°F, which 2.5°F above average.

In terms of precipitation, the month was mostly dry. Only 2.0 inches of rain was measured in Central Park, marking the third month in a row to deliver below average rainfall. The city usually gets 4.28 inches of rain in September.

Credit: The Weather Gamut

The Weather Gamut Celebrates Sixth Anniversary

It is hard to believe, but today marks the sixth anniversary of The Weather Gamut.

Initially begun as a way to deepen and share my knowledge about weather and climate change, this blog has allowed me to expand on my interests and concerns in ways that I never thought possible. This past year, I presented original research about climate communication at the Annual Meeting of the AMS and was invited to speak at a variety of venues in both the US and Europe.

Through writing this blog, I have also met many wonderful people working in this fascinating field. I am grateful for all their support and encouragement. Looking ahead, I am excited to continue this rewarding journey.

As always, thank you for reading!

Credit: Maria Elena

Earth Posts Third Warmest August and Summer on Record

Our global temperature continued its upward trend last month. August 2017 marked not only the third warmest August on record but also closed out the planet’s third warmest June to August period, which is known as meteorological summer in the northern hemisphere.

According to the State of the Climate report by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, Earth’s combined average temperature for August – over both land and sea surfaces – was 61.59°F, which is 1.49°F above the 20th-century average. Only August 2015 and 2016 were warmer.

This August also marked the 392nd consecutive month with a global temperature above its long-term norm. That means the last time any month posted a below average reading was December 1984.

The three-month period of June, July, and August was also unusually warm. NOAA reports that Earth’s average temperature for the season was 1.46°F above the 20th century average of 60.1°F. That makes it the third warmest such period on record, trailing only the 2016 and 2015 seasons.

While heat dominated most of the planet this summer, some places were particularly warm, including parts of Europe, the Middle East, and the western United States. For the contiguous US as a whole, it was our fifteenth warmest summer on record.

These soaring temperatures are largely attributed to the long-term trend of human-caused climate change. ENSO-neutral conditions prevailed in August, which means there was neither an El Niño nor a La Niña in the Pacific to influence global weather patterns.

Year to date, the first eight months of 2017 were the second warmest such period of any year on record. Global temperature records date back to 1880.

Credit: NOAA

Hurricane Irma Challenges Multiple Records

Hurricane Irma’s final chapters have yet to be written, but the storm has already earned its place in the history books.

According to NOAA, Irma’s winds peaked at 185 mph. That means it is tied as the second strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic Basin. It shares this dubious honor with the Labor Day /Florida Keys Hurricane of 1935, Hurricane Gilbert of 1988, and Hurricane Wilma of 2005. Only Hurricane Allen in 1980 was stronger with winds clocked at 190 mph. That said, Irma now ranks as the strongest storm on record in the Atlantic outside of the Carribean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico.

Irma’s winds remained at 185 mph for 37 hours. That is the longest any storm on the planet has maintained that level of intensity. The previous record of 24 hours was set by Super Typhoon Haiyan in the northwest Pacific in 2013. Furthermore, Irma remained a Category 5 hurricane for three consecutive days, the longest such measurement since the satellite era began in 1966.

Source: NHC

NYC Monthly Summary: August 2017

August was unusually mild in New York City this year. Of the month’s thirty-one days, nineteen posted below average readings, including an unseasonably cool 68°F on August 29. Furthermore, the month typically produces four days with readings in the 90s, but this year we only had one. In the end, the city’s mean temperature for the month was 74°F, which is 1.2°F below average.

In terms of precipitation, August was mostly dry. Overall, 3.34 inches was recorded in Central Park, marking the fourth month this year and second in a row to deliver below average rainfall. The city usually gets 4.44 inches of rain for the month.

August 2017 was unusually mild in NYC. Credit: The Weather Gamut