2019: Second Warmest Year on Record for Planet Earth

Its official, 2019 was the second warmest year ever recorded on this planet. Only 2016 was warmer.

According to a report by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, Earth’s combined average temperature for the year – over both land and sea surfaces – was 1.71°F above the 20th-century average.

2019 also marked the 43rd consecutive year with a global temperature above its long-term norm. That means every year since 1977 has posted a warmer than average annual temperature.

Looking at the map below, it is clear to see that heat dominated most of the planet last year. The only continent that did not post an annual temperature among its top three highest was North America. It ranked fourteenth. The state of Alaska, however, experienced its warmest year on record.

The exceptional warmth of 2019 is largely attributed to the long-term trend of human-caused climate change. While a weak El Niño was present at the beginning of the year, it dissipated by July with ENSO neutral conditions prevailing afterward.

Credit: NOAA

Looking at the bigger picture, the five warmest years on record have occurred since 2015, and nine of the ten warmest have taken place since 2005. The only year from the last century included on the top ten list is 1998, which ranks tenth.

As greenhouse gases – the main driver of global warming – continue to spew into the atmosphere, temperatures will continue to rise and records will likely continue to fall.

Global temperature records date back to 1880.

2019 was Earth’s second warmest year on record. Credit: NOAA

Early Spring Preview Brings Record Warmth to NYC

The calendar says January, but it felt more like early May in New York City this weekend.

In Central Park, the temperature soared to 69°F on Saturday and hit 68°F on Sunday, setting new record highs for both dates. According to the NWS, the previous records of 63°F for January 11 and 66°F for January 12 were set in 1975 and 2017, respectively.

It is also interesting to note that the overnight low temperatures for both dates (51°F and 43°F) were warmer than the normal high. The average high for the city in mid-January is 38°F and the average low is 27.

The primary driver of this unseasonable warmth was a large ridge in the jet stream. Sitting over the eastern part of the US, it allowed warm air from the south to flow further north than it normally would at this time of the year.

But, as with most things that go up, they must also come back down. The temperature is expected to moderate over the next few days but remain above average. More seasonable temperatures are expected to return by the end of the week. So, don’t put your winter coats away just yet.

Credit: The Weather Gamut

October 2019: Earth’s Second Warmest October on Record

Our global temperature continued its upward trend last month with October 2019 marking the second warmest October ever recorded on this planet. Only October 2015 was warmer.

According to NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, Earth’s combined average temperature for the month – over both land and sea surfaces – was 58.86°F. That is 1.76°F above the 20th-century average. October also marked the 418th consecutive month with a global temperature above its long-term norm. That means the last time any month posted a below-average reading was December 1984.

Furthermore, the ten warmest Octobers have all occurred since 2003, with the last five Octobers being the five warmest on record.

While heat dominated most of the planet this October, some places were particularly warm, including Alaska, northern Canada, eastern Europe, northern Russia, the Middle East, and western Australia. These soaring temperatures are largely attributed to the long-term trend of human-caused climate change.

For many people in the northern and central parts of the contiguous US, however, this October was unusually cold. To put this disparity into context, consider that the United States constitutes less than 2% of the total surface of the Earth. This detail also highlights the fact that climate change is a complex global phenomenon that involves much more than the short-term weather conditions that are happening in any one part of the world.

Year to date, the first ten months of 2019 were the second warmest such period of any year on record. At this point, it is very likely that 2019 will finish among the top five warmest years on record. Global temperature records date back to 1880.

Credit: NOAA

October Begins with Weather Whiplash in NYC

Autumn is a transitional season where a few warm days still pop up as cooler temperatures gradually take hold. This week in New York City, however, it felt like we jumped from mid-July to late October in only one day.

On Wednesday, the temperature soared to a sweltering 93°F, setting a new record high for the date. The previous record of 90°F had been in place since 1927. Then, the temperature plummeted overnight. On Thursday, the mercury only made to 63°F.  While not a record-breaker, it was the coolest day the city has seen in months.

The normal high for this time of year in the Big Apple is around 70°F.

Credit: The Weather Gamut

Record Breaking October Heat in NYC

The season officially changed to autumn last week, but it felt more like summer in New York City on Wednesday.

The temperature in Central Park soared to 93°F, setting a new record high for the date. The previous record of 90°F had been in place since 1927. Wednesday also marked the second warmest October day ever recorded in the Big Apple. Only October 5, 1941, was warmer when the temperature hit an unseasonably sultry 94°F.

This type of heat is unusual for NYC in October. In fact, this was only the sixth time temperatures ventured into the 90s during the month since record-keeping began in 1869.

At this point in October, the normal high in the city is 69°F. But with a stubborn ridge of high pressure sitting over the region, warm air is flowing further north than it normally would at this time of year.  It is also important to note that as our climate changes, record warm days are occurring more often and the autumn season as a whole is heating up.

Credit: The Weather Gamut

Autumn is Heating Up Across the US

Autumn is a transitional season. It is generally a time when the heat of summer fades away and the chill of winter gradually returns. But, as our climate changes, the season is heating up.

Across the contiguous United States, autumn temperatures have increased an average of 2.5°F over the past fifty years, according to Climate Central. The western part of the country has seen the fastest seasonal increase, with Reno, NV warming 7.7°F.  Las Vegas, NV, and El Paso, TX have each seen a rise of more than 5°F since 1970.

These warmer temperatures may feel like a summer bonus for some, but they also bring a number of negative impacts. Less frost-free days means the allergy season is extended and disease-carrying pests like mosquitos and ticks are able to live and thrive longer. Warmer temperatures also drive up energy bills, as people with air conditioning units use them longer into the season. This in turn, if they are powered by fossil fuels, adds even more heat-trapping greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

Wildlife is also feeling the effects of a warming fall. The timing of when fruits ripen, for example, is being skewed from its “normal schedule”. In turn, this is impacting the once well-synced patterns of animal behaviors such as bird migration and hibernation.

Looking ahead, as greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase, so too will the temperature and its associated impacts.

Credit: Climate Central

Earth Posts 2nd Warmest August and 2nd Warmest June-August Season on Record

Our global temperature continued its upward trend last month. August 2019 marked not only Earth’s second warmest August, but also closed out the planet’s second warmest June-August season on record.

According to the State of the Climate Report by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, Earth’s combined average temperature for August – over both land and sea surfaces – was 61.76°F, which is 1.66°F above the 20th-century average. This August also marked the 416th consecutive month with a global temperature above its long-term norm. That means the last time any month posted a below average reading was December 1984.

The three-month period of June, July, and August – meteorological summer in the northern hemisphere – was also unusually warm. NOAA reports that Earth’s average temperature for the season was 1.67°F above the 20th century average of 60.1°F. That makes it the second warmest such period on record. It is also important to note that nine of the ten warmest June-August periods have all occurred since 2009.

While heat dominated most of the planet this August, some places were particularly warm, including Europe, Africa, and parts of Hawaii and Alaska. For the contiguous US as a whole, August 2019 tied August 1955 as the 13th warmest on record.

These soaring temperatures are largely attributed to the long-term trend of human-caused climate change. As greenhouse gases continue to spew into the atmosphere, global temperatures are expected to continue to rise.

Year to date, the first eight months of 2019 were the third warmest such period of any year on record. At this point, it is very likely that 2019 will finish among the top five warmest years ever recorded. Global temperature records date back to 1880.

Credit: NOAA

Climate Indicator: Record Highs Outpacing Record Lows

There are a variety of indicators that show our climate is changing, including increasing average temperatures, melting glaciers, and sea-level rise. Nevertheless, it is extreme events, such as record heat, that usally garner the most attention.

Around the globe, the number of record high temperatures are out-numbering record low temperatures. In the US, according to an analysis by the AP, record warm days have out-paced record cold days by a ratio of 2:1 since 1999. This is a clear sign of our climate is shifting to a “new normal”.

In a stable climate, record highs and lows would be more balanced, with the ratio being closer to 1:1.

While climate change is a global phenomenon, we can see it playing out at a local scale. Here in New York City, we still get the occasional cold snap in winter, but the record highs have been outpacing the record lows for decades.

Credit: Climate Central

July 2019: Earth’s Warmest Month on Record

Our global temperature continued its upward trend last month with July 2019 marking not only the warmest July on record, but also the warmest month ever recorded for the entire planet. The previous record was set just three years ago in July 2016.

According to a report by NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information, Earth’s combined average temperature for the month – over both land and sea surfaces – was 62.11°F. That is 1.71°F above the 20th-century average. Since July is the Earth’s warmest month of the year climatologically, the July 2019 global temperature is now the highest temperature for any month on record.

July 2019 also marked the 415th consecutive month with a global temperature above its long-term norm. That means the last time any month posted a below-average reading was December 1984. Furthermore, nine of the ten warmest Julys have occurred since 2005, with the last five years producing the five warmest Julys on record. July 1998 is the only year from the last century on the top ten list.

While heat dominated most of the planet this July, some places were particularly warm, including Europe as well as parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. In the United States, Alaska posted its warmest month ever recorded. For the contiguous US, the month tied July 1917 as the 27th warmest July on record.

These soaring temperatures are largely attributed to the long-term trend of human-caused climate change. As greenhouse gases continue to spew into the atmosphere, global temperatures are expected to continue to rise.

Year to date, the first seven months of 2019 tied 2017 as the second warmest such period of any year on record. At this point, it is very likely that 2019 will finish among the top five warmest years on record. Global temperature records date back to 1880.

July 2019 was the warmest month ever recorded on this planet. Credit: NOAA

July 2019: Tenth Hottest July on Record for NYC

July is usually the warmest month on the calendar for New York City, but this year it was especially hot. In fact, it tied July 1949 as the city’s tenth warmest July on record.

In all, it produced 26 days with above-average readings, including ten days in the 90s. Four of those days came during a heatwave in the middle of the month when the air temperature reached 95°F and the humidity made it feel well above 100°F.

Overnight lows were also mostly warmer than normal throughout the month. On July 20, the mercury only fell to 82°F, setting a new record warm low temperature for the date. In the end, the city’s mean temperature for the month was 79.6°F, which is 3.1°F above average.

It is important to note that four of the city’s ten warmest Julys on record have now occurred since 2010. The warmest was July 1999, when the average temperature for the month was 81.4°F.

This July was also above average in terms of precipitation. With several intense thunderstorms rolling through the area, a total of 5.77 inches of rain was measured in Central Park. The city, on average, gets 4.60 inches of rain for the month.

Credit: The Weather Gamut