During the summer months, a change in wind direction known as a monsoon brings a major shift in the weather for the southwestern US. The season is well known for producing intense dust storms known as haboobs.
Haboobs form when thunderstorms collapse and create a strong downward flow of wind. When this downdraft of air hits the ground ahead of the storm, it blows the loose sand and soil from the desert floor high up in the air, creating a giant wall of dust. Rising quickly, haboobs often reach heights between 5000 and 8000 feet and can span out nearly 100 miles in length. Traveling at speeds ranging from 30 to 60 mph, they can cover large distances rather quickly.
Often called “black blizzards”, these storms turn day into night. Engulfing entire communities in dust, they cause respiratory problems and create serious travel hazards both in the air and on the ground. Luckily, they usually only last a few hours.
Many dry regions of the world experience haboobs, but they were first described in Sudan, along the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. As such, the word comes from Arabic and means, “blowing or blasting furiously.”